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Why hasn’t the Dangerous Dogs Act stopped “dog attacks”?

The bottom line is that the DDA was never intended to prevent any and all dog attacks, or injuries to people caused by dogs. There are a number of reasons for this, but primarily the law was passed to protect the public from certain types of dog, and to allow the police to prosecute people who let their dogs attack a person. The effectiveness of this law has been widely questioned, not least by vets, the RSPCA and many animal owners, who have argued that it was an overreaction. However, some campaigners and victims of dog bites maintain it needs to be made stronger and stricter.
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5 things to think about when training rhinos (if you don’t have a rhino a dog will do just fine…)

Okay, so training a rhino is something that only a few people get to do. However, working close quarters with any animal can be enormously rewarding, especially when you achieve something together. Positive reinforcement training is the primary method used by professional animal trainers to work with their charges and it is a fantastic way to enrich an animal’s life and reduce potential stress.
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Why do dogs wag their tails?

There are few things more cheering than the sight of a wagging tail but what is your dog actually trying to tell you?  Certainly, it can indicate happiness but also a lot of other things as well!

  • A tail held high and vigorously wagged from side to side indicates its owner is happy and ready to play.
  • A tail held level with the body and wagged more slowly shows that the dog is in a situation where they are not quite sure what is going on but are interested and paying attention.
  • A tail held low and wagging only a little or twitching, is often showing that the dog is feeling threatened and you should approach and handle them with caution.
  • A tail tucked up and under the body means that the dog is frightened and showing submission.  With reassurance they may start to feel more confident but again, you should take care with them to ensure they don’t progress to growling, or even biting, to make the perceived threat retreat.
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Rabbits are not like small dogs or long-eared cats. And it’s not just that they eat grass.

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When something goes wrong with an animal's nervous system, it's very upsetting, and it's easy to panic. People often make generalisations, and leap to the wrong conclusion. He's falling over! He's had a stroke! He's dragging his back legs! To help animals, it's important for vets to be as objective as possible, making a careful note of precisely which part of the nervous system has gone wrong. Vets do this using a specific examination procedure, known as the “neurological examination”. There are tick sheets available to make it easier for vets: various aspects of the nervous system are examined individually, and at the end, it's then easier to be specific about the precise diagnosis. Only then can the correct treatment and prognosis be given. At last week's London Vet Show, there was a fascinating lecture, sponsored by Supreme Pet Foods, which dealt with the subject of neurological examinations in rabbits. As many rabbit owners will know, diseases of the nervous system are common. However rabbits are very different creatures to dogs and cats: they are prey animals rather than predators, and as a consequence, their nervous system doesn't always behave in the same way. Rabbits are especially sensitive to stress, and they tend to mask their fear by staying still. Anyone who has examined rabbits will know this: they tend to stay very passive until the fear is too much, and then they panic explosively, trying to jump out of your arms. This type of temperament means that rabbits react differently when their nervous system is examined. The lecturer carried out a field study, during which she made a careful comparison of a standard neurological examination in rabbits compared to other pets, and she came up with some useful tips. First, she listed the four main types of disease of the nervous system seen in rabbits: head tilt, weakness or paralysis of the back legs (or all four legs), seizures (fitting) and “miscellaneous” (muscle weakness, strange gaits, blindness and other oddities). There's a long list of possible causes of these problems, from brain diseases (including a common fungal parasite called Encephalitozoon cuniculi), to viral and bacterial infections, to spinal problems (including broken backs and slipped discs), to heat stroke, metabolic disorders and many others. In all cases, whatever the cause, the neurological examination is a key to whittling down the list of possibilities. So how are rabbits different to dogs and cats? First and most importantly, rabbits don't show a pain response in the same way. With dogs and cats, it's easy to tell if they can feel their toes by squeezing them: if sensation is normal, they pull their foot away from you. Rabbits often don't do this: they stay utterly still, however hard you squeeze their toes. It doesn't mean they aren't feeling it: they just don't react because in the wild, it makes more sense to “play dead” in the hope that the creature that's hurting you will just go away. Secondly, some of their reflexes are exaggerated. If you tap a dog's knee with a rubber hammer, there's a similar type of small “kick” reflex to a human. In rabbits, the same test elicits a sharp, exaggerated kick, perhaps reflecting the wound up stressed nervous system of the rabbit. If a dog had a reflex kick like this, you'd think there was something strange wrong with them: it's normal in a rabbit. Third, some of their reflexes are diminished or absent: for example, rabbits don't have a “menace” reflex (if you wave your hand towards a dog's eye as if you are about to hit them, they blink automatically, like humans: this is the menace reflex. Rabbits don't do this). Other reflexes in rabbits' eyes are also different: their pupils don't always narrow and widen in the same way as other creatures.  There are two sets of take home messages here. First, if you're a vet, remember to expect different results from other pets when you're assessing rabbits with neurological problems. And second, if you're a rabbit owner, remember to take your pet to a vet with an interest in rabbits: all vets are trained in the essentials of rabbit medicine, but when it comes to complex disease, the more rabbits that a vet sees, the better they will be at rabbit-specific subtleties like neurological examinations.    
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How to help stressed-out cats whose owners think they are “behaving badly”

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One of the challenges for veterinary surgeons working in the media is that is that they are often asked about one specific patient, with a particular problem. While it's helpful for the individual owner to discuss their own pet, it can be less enthralling for other readers.

Here are a couple of examples:
  • Ginger, a 5 year old neutered tom cat, had started urinating in his owner's bathtub, and occasionally in the sink downstairs. He had always been a "good" cat, going out through the cat flap to do his business. Why would he change like this?
  • Harry, a two year old neutered male tabby cat, had recently started to suffer from injuries caused by cat fights. His owner had seen a big tom cat stalking him in the garden, and the cat had even come into the kitchen on one occasion, stealing Harry's food. Why was this other cat doing this, and what could be done?
Ideally, both of these questions deserve to be analysed in their own right, and a full, detailed response given. Vets in the media often do this, publishing the dialogue and outcome. While this is useful, it isn't always the best way to give a detailed explanation about cat behaviour that will be useful for all readers. This is an area where Wikivet offers a different approach. There are two Wikivet sections that are particularly relevant to the cases under discussion. First, there is an entire section on feline territorial behaviour. This is an up-to-date scientific review of our current understanding of cat social life, and it's highly relevant to any incident involving cat-cat interactions. The Wikivet entry includes some useful facts:
  • In urban areas the density of cat populations may be high, exceeding 50 cats per square kilometre.
  • 81% of 734 UK cat owners whose cats were allowed outdoor access indicated that their neighbours also had at least one cat that was allowed outside
  • In houses with a standard cat flap, 24.8% reported that other cats came into their home to fight with their cats, and 39.4% reported that they came in to steal food.
  • Cats that had experienced injuries due to conflict with other cats showed 3.9 times the rate of indoor spray marking compared with cats that had not experienced injuries.
You can read the full Wikivet page for yourself to find out more helpful facts about cat social life. Second, another Wikivet page  focuses specifically on the issue of indoor marking, highlighting the fact that the two main scenarios leading to indoor marking are conflict with non-resident cats, and conflict with resident cats. The page suggests some answers that may help specific cases, including mentions of treatment approaches ( from an electronic coded cat flap so that outside cats cannot gain access to the home to the use of Feliway diffusers and spray, to mentions of some of the psychoactive  medication that may be prescribed by vets for super-stressed moggies. There are also links to detailed videos by behavioural specialists which go into more details on the subject. So if you have a cat who seems to be agitated by local rivals, or who has taken to indoor urinating, read these Wikivet pages. They may help you solve the problem, and if they don't, you'll be far better informed when you do take your "badly behaving" cat to your vet for the next stage of help.
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