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Ask a vet online –‘after the vet said she had gone she gave out a cry and her body jolted’

Question from Diane Stirk: I had to have my little blind girl put to sleep Friday, she was 13 and had all symptoms off dementia, but after the vet said she had gone she gave out a cry and her body jolted, y did she do this does it mean she wasn't gone, I'm heatbrocken over this, Answer from Shanika Winters: Hi Diane firstly I am very sorry that you recently lost your pet, having a much loved pet put to sleep is always a very difficult decision.  I will try and explain what happens when a pet is put to sleep and to explain what can happen afterwards.  I hope that this can help to ease your upset over what happened with your pet. The reason we call euthanasia of a pet putting them to sleep is because your pet is actually given a very high dose of anaesthetic (drugs which are normally used to bring us to sleep for an operation).  The dose of anaesthetic given will cause your pet’s heart to stop beating; they will also stop breathing which results in them passing away. The anaesthetic drug is usually given by an injection directly into your pet’s blood stream.  With cat and dogs the injection is usually given into a vein on one of the front legs.  A small area of fur is first clipped away, the skin is then cleaned, and your pet’s leg will be supported by an assistant to enable your vet to put the injection into your pet’s vein.   You are still able to hold or hug your pet while the injection is being given if you want to.  In the case of rabbits the injection is often given into a vein on the ear, some smaller pets are given anaesthetic gas first followed by an injection. In some cases if the blood stream cannot be accessed, as your pet may have a collapsed circulation then the injection may be given into the kidney or liver.  The anaesthetic will then be absorbed into the blood stream a little slower than when injected directly into a vein. If your pet is distressed or generally frightened at the vets then they can be given a sedative before the anaesthetic injection.  The sedative is to calm your pet and reduce anxiety, which should hopefully make the process of losing your pet less stressful for both pet and owner.  Use of a sedative does however mean that the process will take a bit longer as the sedative will take time to work.  The sedative can be given as a tablet or injection into the skin or muscle. Once the anaesthetic reaches the correct concentration in your pet’s blood stream, this will cause your pets heart to stop beating and them to stop breathing.  Your pet will no longer react to sounds or touch; your vet will listen to your pet’s heart, feel for its pulse and may check its reflex by gently touching the eye.  This is all to confirm that your pet has passed away. After a pet has passed away as the muscles relax the bladder and bowels may empty, some pets also give a gasp as the air leaves the lungs.  In some animals there are jerky movements after death, called agonal movements.  These movements do not mean that your pet is alive or suffering.  The agonal movements happen as chemicals leak out of the body cells and allow muscle to contract.  Normally when alive these chemicals are kept in place until the body needs to use its muscles. Understandably it can be very distressing for a pet owner to see or hear sounds coming from their pet after he/she has been put to sleep.  If you have any concerns either before or after losing a pet then make sure you contact your vet or veterinary nurse.  We will make time to discuss things with you and do our best to help put you at ease with this very difficult situation. I hope that this answer has helped a little to explain what happened after you lost your pet and that your worries have been eased. Shanika Winters MRCVS (Online vet)
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Ebola seems to be dwindling, but look out: Avian Flu is back!

Just as the news headlines about Ebola have dampened down from boiling to a quiet simmer, Avian Flu has leapt back into the news. The Telegraph headline today sums up the media reporting: "Bird flu strain which can be passed to humans detected in Holland". Meanwhile, even closer to home, the BBC reports that a case of bird flu has been confirmed at a duck breeding farm in East Yorkshire. The ducks are being slaughtered and a 10km (6 mile) exclusion zone is in place. It all sounds as if an apocalypse along the lines of the "Contagious" movie has landed in Europe, but the truth is far less exciting. Avian Flu is a viral disease that is highly infectious between birds. This is the single fact that needs to be stressed more than anything else. It is a bird disease, and the risk to humans is minimal. The strain of avian flu that is in the news is similar as the one which was first seen in Hong Kong in 1997, and has been appearing spasmodically ever since. That one was known as H5N1(H-five-N-one), a name that describes the type of proteins on the virus particles. The Netherlands strain is the H5N8. The strain in Yorkshire has been identified as an H5 strain but further details are not yet available. It is true that humans can be infected by such strains of the virus, but the risk of this is so small as to be almost negligible. Hundreds of millions of birds have died because the disease spreads rapidly from bird to bird, and because authorities react to viral outbreaks by carrying out mass slaughtering of poultry flocks in an attempt to eliminate the virus. When humans have been infected, the virus has not spread from person to person. It has remained as a bird virus only, with humans only occasionally getting in the way, usually when they are working in close proximity to infected birds when they inhale viral particles. If Avian Flu reached the UK, everyone working with poultry would know to be ultra-careful about hygiene, so the risk of humans dying of bird flu would be minimal. There is no such thing as a human pandemic of bird flu. Readers may then wonder why there seems to be a type of hysteria around Avian Flu. The reason for this is the potential for a change in the virus which could indeed lead to a human pandemic. The avian virus could mutate into a new strain of virus that is highly infectious to humans. If this happened, the new Human Flu virus would spread across the world rapidly. This is what happened in 1918, when 50 million people worldwide died in a flu pandemic and the authorities are justifiably concerned about the risk of a repeat of this. Mutation of the virus is only likely to happen if a human who is already suffering from a normal, harmless human flu virus infection picked up an Avian Flu virus at the same time. If the two viruses were active in the same human body at the same time, they may exchange genetic material. The result could be a new mutated virus that was a combination of the harmless human flu and the dangerous bird flu. If this new virus spread from the first victim to other people, it could signal the start of a new global human pandemic similar to 1918. Modern high volume, low-cost international travel would mean that the new virus could spread very rapidly indeed. This is why the authorities take outbreaks of Avian Flu so seriously. In Hong Kong originally in 1997, 1.5 million birds were slaughtered. The pattern has been repeated elsewhere – whenever the virus, or similar ones, are discovered, the poultry population is slaughtered. These strict control measures are very effective in stopping the spread of the disease amongst birds. Despite such radical efforts to control the virus, it does continue to spread. Migrating wild birds – waterfowl such as ducks, geese and swans - are partly to blame, but infected poultry products – such as untreated manure - may also contribute when they are moved out of infected areas. International trade in poultry can also be significant, and the mass intensification of poultry meat production means that when outbreaks occur, hundreds of thousands of birds can rapidly be affected. The public in the UK do not need to worry too much about these latest outbreaks in the Netherlands, but people should be aware that if they do come across sick or dead wild waterfowl (such as swans), they should let the authorities know at once. To find out more about the UK government's response to the bird flu vet, see this link. It's a helpful government website: no frightening headlines, no nonsense: just the simple facts.
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Ask a vet online – ‘my dog has been weeing blood could it be infection or something more’

Question from Sharon Harris: My dog aged 10 has on a couple of times been weeing blood he does one long one which is ok then just walks round weeing bits but that's when the blood starts he is wanting to go out more often than he usually does ,drinking more still eating and his usual self but have noticed a lump that is inside lower stomach but has lumps all over his body but many wiems have these lumps could it be infection or something more Answer from Shanika Winters: Hi Sharon, thank you for your question regarding your 10 year old dog who is passing blood in his urine (wee) this symptom is called Haematuria. It sounds like your dog is still bright and happy in himself, it is possible that his haematuria is due to an infection but can also be related to bladder disease, kidney disease or prostate disease.  It is really important to get your dog examined by your vet as soon as possible. What will happen when I take my dog to the vet? Your vet will ask a lot of questions to form a history of what is going on with your dog, including drinking and urinating habits which you have already listed in your question.  It is very helpful to bring in a urine sample in a clean container when the condition relates to the urine.  It can be tricky to catch a urine sample from your dog, especially if they prefer to wee when off the lead but a clean bowl and some perseverance should eventually mean you can get a sample.  Your vet can collect a sample by passing a urinary catheter (long thin soft plastic tube placed into the bladder) but this can be uncomfortable and may require sedation/hospitalisation for your dog. Your vet will also take into consideration whether or not your pet has been neutered(castrated) as in older male dogs the influence of sex hormones(produced by the testicles) can affect the prostate gland which can lead to haematuria.  The prostate gland is found in male dogs around the neck of the bladder and it produces various secretions which go into semen (the liquid sperm is in).  The prostate gland is usually small and inactive in neutered male dogs, but in entire male dogs the prostate can become enlarged, infected and or cancerous.  Many of the diseases of the prostate gland can lead to haematuria.  Your vet can often feel the shape and size of your dog’s prostate gland by examining your dog internally and externally. The kidneys are the organ which actually produces urine, your dog has two and they filter his blood to remove toxins and waste products which are then lost in the urine.  So haematuria could be blood coming from the kidneys either due to infection, kidney stones or cancerous changes in the kidneys or the tubing from the kidneys to the bladder (the ureters). The bladder is a stretchy bag made of muscle and lined with a delicate membrane (layer) which stores the urine produced by the kidneys and empties out through a tube called the urethra.  Haematuria could be blood from the bladder or urethra due to infection, stones, polyps, trauma (accidents) or cancerous changes. Your vet will thoroughly examine your dog paying extra attention to the back end of the abdomen, will also check your dog’s penis and likely examine your dog internally (via his bottom).  This helps to give information about the kidneys, bladder and prostate gland. What will happen to the urine sample? The first thing your vet will do is look at the colour of the urine sample, this may or may not show visible blood, sometime only tiny traces of blood are present in the urine sample and can be picked up on a dip stick. A urine dip stick is a card strip that has lots of little coloured patches on it; they each detect different chemicals and substances in the urine and give a quick result.  Most veterinary practices can also examine urine samples under the microscope to look for unusual cells and or crystals. If the result and rest of your dog’s examination suggests infection then your vet may suggest trying a course of antibiotics.  If however your vet thinks there may be more going on a carefully collected urine sample may be sent for laboratory analysis which involves culture and sensitivity, this looks at what bacteria are present and which antibiotics are likely to work on them. What further test might my dog need? Your vet may suggest blood tests to check that your pet has not lost too much blood, how its general health is and how well its body organs are functioning.  Blood tests do not always show up a lot of changes but this still gives us information as to how your dog is. X-rays may be taken conscious or under sedation or general anaesthesia, this gives a picture of what is happening inside of your dog, in the case of the bladder and prostate gland we sometimes add a contrast (chemical or air) to help show up details of the tubing and bladder lining. Ultra sound scans are another way of looking more closely at what is happening inside your dog, in order for these to be performed an area of fur will be clipped away, the skin cleaned and then a gel placed onto it to help p the ultrasound probe to make good contact and pick up details.  Ultrasound scans can be particularly useful for looking at the kidneys and bladder. What possible treatments might my dog need? The exact treatment your dog has will depend on what disease process is found in in what part of your dog it is. Urine tract infection: This is usually treated with a course of antibiotics and repeat urine samples tested to see when the infection has cleared. Bladder stones/urine crystals: This can be treated using special diets to reduce stone/crystal formation, surgery to remove stones, medications to help dissolve stones/crystals along with antibiotics and pain relief as required. Bladder growths/polyps: These can be surgically removed and analysed to give an idea of they are likely to return or cause further problems. Kidney infection:  This is usually treated by intensive antibiotics along with intra venous fluid therapy (drip line into your dog) to help keep the kidneys flushed through and functioning. Kidney growth/abnormalities: If the growth is cancerous and might spread then the kidney might be surgically removed. If the kidney is diseased e.g. polycystic then it will be left in place and your dog given medications and diets to help preserve what is left of its kidney function. Prostate enlargement/growths: If your dog is entire then surgical or chemical castration might be advised along with surgery to de bulk the growth if appropriate. I hope that my answer has helped you to understand how complex something as simple as blood in the urine can be.  Hopefully with your vets help, your dog will be on his road to recovery soon. Shanika Winters MRCVS (Online vet) If you have any worries about your pet, please make an appointment with your vet, or try our Symptom Guide.
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“Me and My Dog” – working together to eradicate rabies

[caption id="attachment_4069" align="aligncenter" width="500"]Pete with his own dog, Kiko Pete with his own dog, Kiko[/caption] Most dog owners adore their pets, and "pet selfies" are a popular way of expressing the joy of the bond between human and animal. A new campaign by a charity is using pet selfies to drive forwards an important goal: the global eradication of rabies. The concept is simple. Take a selfie of yourself with your pet, then upload it to the charity website. When you reach the uploading page, you'll be asked if you want to make a donation: even a couple of pounds will do. The idea is to make this a viral campaign: if enough people do this, the charity will raise a game-changing sum of money, and the goal of rabies eradication will be a step closer. There's an irony to the idea of "dog and owner" pictures being used to counter rabies: 99% of human cases of rabies are caused by dog bites. If it wasn't for the close relationship between humans and dogs, rabies wouldn't be an issue. The fact is that rabies is a big issue: over 150 people die of the disease every day, mostly in Africa and Asia. Scientists have worked out how to eradicate rabies. If 70% of all dogs in an area are vaccinated once against rabies, the disease dwindles and disappears. They've done it in South America over the past thirty years. In 1983, Latin America committed to mass dog vaccination: dog rabies cases in the region declined from a peak of 25,000 in 1977 to just 196 in 2011, and human cases fell by 96 per cent to only 15 across the whole continent. The aim of the Global Alliance for Rabies Control is to achieve the same levels of success in Africa and Asia. While it sounds simple to vaccinate 70% of the dogs in an area, it's difficult to do this in practice, on the ground, in real-life situations. A level of systematic organisation is necessary and in many parts of the world, it's difficult to make dog vaccination a high enough priority for this to happen. But although it's difficult, it's not impossible. Every year, more than 15 million people worldwide receive a post-exposure rabies vaccination, after being bitten by a dog, to prevent the disease – this is estimated to prevent hundreds of thousands of rabies deaths annually. This includes millions of people in Asia and Africa, and it's a fact that may contain the seed of an answer to the problem. It's much more costly to give post-exposure vaccination to a human than to give a one-off vaccine to a dog. If some of the funds used for human treatments could be diverted to vaccinate dogs, this would make it much easier to reach the goal of 70% vaccine coverage. If this was achieved, there would no longer be the same need for post-exposure vaccination: money spent would translate to money saved. On the ground, it's difficult to move funds around like this: human health departments fund the human vaccinations, whereas animal health departments pay for dog vaccines. Under the new concept of "One Health", it's recognised that human and animal health are closely intertwined. The human and animal health departments should be talking to each other, and funds should be easily transferred between them for projects like rabies control. Unfortunately, due to tradition and human issues of control, it isn't easy to make this happen. The Global Alliance for Rabies Control is doing its best to achieve this type of change, and the good news is that you can help them today. Go to this website: https://meandmydog.rabiesalliance.org/ and scroll down. You'll see a blue box that says 'Share' and if you click on 'choose file', it will automatically launch a window that will allow you to select a photo from your computer. You and your dog may only make a small difference, but if we all do it, we and our dogs together may be enough to change the world. Our generation can eradicate rabies and wouldn't it be fitting if our own dogs joined us in that goal?
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