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What harm is blue-green algae for dogs?

Blue-green algae, which poses a health risk to humans and animals, flourishes during warm spells. Hot and dry weather across the UK in the spring and summer often leads to UK environment agencies confirming reports of blue green algae nationwide.  Dogs are at risk because they enjoy drinking and playing in lakes and ponds, and may lick their fur after swimming. With the summer rapidly approaching, it's time to make sure that you know how to keep your pets safe.
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Why is my cat sneezing?

Cats, like many animals, will sneeze from time to time. An occasional sneeze, as with humans, is rarely of concern. If you notice that this sneezing becomes frequent, or there are other signs, then you may need to go to your vet’s for a pet check.  

What’s the most common cause of sneezing in cats?

Cat flu (upper respiratory infection).

Viral infections are the most common cause of excessive, but temporary, sneezing in cats. 90% of infections are due to feline calicivirus or feline herpesvirus with exposure to infected saliva, tears or snot causing it to spread. Although sneezing is a common sign, most have other signs such as coughing, runny eyes, conjunctivitis, a snotty nose and mouth or eye ulcers. Many cats lose their appetite and become lethargic and febrile. Bacteria such as Bordetella bronchiseptica can cause similar signs including sneezing but is a less common culprit. Older cats, kittens, and cats with reduced immune system function, can become very ill and develop secondary infections like pneumonia. In these cats, flu can be life threatening. A vaccine is available and used routinely in the UK to protect against these viruses. Treatment is aimed at the symptoms: giving intravenous fluids if there is dehydration; antibiotics if secondary bacterial infections are suspected; and steam and nebulizers to help breathing. Warmed tasty food is essential given their sense of smell is affected. Interferons (proteins produced by the body that fight viruses) have been produced but so far with limited effectiveness. There are some antivirals that may be helpful against oral and eye symptoms. Most cats infected with herpesvirus remain carriers. Some don’t shed significant amounts of virus, some shed intermittently when stressed and may or may not show signs themselves. Stress may include having kittens or going to a cattery, for example. Many kittens are infected by apparently well mums in this way. Cats with FCV remain carriers for a few weeks but usually eliminate it.  

My cat’s sneezing is not going away. What could be the cause?

There are a range of possibilities...

Post-viral or idiopathic rhinitis.

Some cats suffer permanent damage of the lining of the nasal cavity, or even the bone, after viral infection, leaving the nasal cavity susceptible to recurring bacterial infection. This post-viral rhinitis (nasal inflammation), is the most common cause of chronic nasal disease and sneezing. It can happen without viral involvement (idiopathic) but is less common and poorly understood.   As the damage is permanent, the aim is management not cure. This can be frustrating, with frequent vet visits and poor long-term quality of life. Antibiotics for bacterial infections are used but these infections can recur very frequently. Nebulisation can help to loosen secretions and allow more effective sneezing. In non-viral cases corticosteroid medication may help. Regular bathing of the face and nose, and warming food to make it more appealing, are basic considerations but important.  

Nasal tumours

Tumours are the second most common cause of long term nasal disease. There are several types of tumours, but 50% are lymphoma. Adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and fibrosarcomas make up most of the rest. More research is needed to explain how cats get nasal lymphoma. Exposure to tobacco smoke is implicated but evidence is lacking. Cats may sneeze, have noisy breathing, a snotty nasal discharge that can be bloody, and have nasal swelling. Vets may make a tentative diagnosis using signs alone but a biopsy is ideal. CT, MRI  and ultrasound scans are useful for detecting the extent and spread of disease but not always possible. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can be used for nasal lymphoma but are not always possible. Cats with treatment can survive an average of 12-30 months as it is often a localised disease.  

Nasal foreign body

Although more common in dogs, we occasionally see grass seeds or blades of grass lodged after attempted vomiting. Symptoms include sneezing and one-sided nasal discharge. Diagnosis and treatment is often by flushing the nose under anaesthetic, although some cases may be more complicated.  

Fungal infections

Dogs are more prone to inhaling fungal organisms. This is rare in cats. Signs may be very similar to other conditions so examination under anaesthesia is often needed and samples taken for culture if suspicion arises. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat and require specialist care, although some respond to antifungals.  

Polyps

Occasionally polyps (inflammatory swellings) can occur within the nasal cavity. Most come from the middle ear or eustachian tube (connects the nose to the middle ear) and grow into the back of the nasal passage (nasopharynx) causing sneezing, noisy breathing and nasal discharge. Surgical removal can be attempted but it may be hard to remove all tissue, so regrowth is possible and more specialist and complex surgery may be needed.  

Dental disease

Disease of a tooth root may affect the nasal cavity causing sneezing and often other signs such as nasal discharge. Dental radiography to check tooth roots is ideal, followed by removal of any diseased teeth.  

Allergies

These are a common cause of sneezing in humans. It’s an uncommon cause in cats. Persian cats that are extremely flat-faced may sneeze more due to their facial conformation which can be ‘normal’ for them.   Your vet may ask you questions in an attempt to hone in on the cause of your cat’s sneezing. Thinking about these in advance may help:
  • Did the clinical signs start suddenly or gradually?
  • Has the sneezing been getting progressively worse?
  • Is there ever a discharge from the nose or eyes? Is this one-sided or both sides?
  • Is this discharge clear, watery, mucus or pus?
  • Is there any blood present in the discharge (may be a sign of more severe disease such as fungal infection/neoplasia)?
  • Is there any facial swelling and change to the conformation of the face or nose (may be a sign of more severe disease such as fungal infection/neoplasia)?
  • Is there any evidence of involvement of the ears (sometimes seen with inflammatory polyps in particular)?
  • Has there been a change in appetite or weight?
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RIP Grumpy Cat… UTIs in cats

In case you hadn’t heard, the world’s most famous cat, Tardar Sauce, died on Friday. Beloved by millions (literally…) because of “her” Instagram account, her unique facial features were reportedly the result of a form of dwarfism. Some said that she was exploited, but her owners seem to have taken excellent care of her - I’m not going to explore that in this blog though. No, from a veterinary perspective, her death - as reported - was curious. She was seven years old, and according to the media, died of complications of a urinary tract infection. This is unusual, and worth commenting on.
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What’s Lucy’s Law, and is it important?

If you follow animal welfare news outlets or social media channels, or even the mainstream news, you’ll probably have heard a lot about Lucy’s Law this week. However, with the Brexit furore, it might have passed you by, if (like many of us!) you turn off (literally or metaphorically) to any news from parliament. So, in this blog, I’m going to look at this new legislation, and see what it means for animal welfare.
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Are pets good for my mental health?

This week is Mental Health Awareness Week - and it’s such an important conversation to be part of, because mental health problems are, sadly, very common. In fact, about 1 in 4 people in the UK will suffer a mental health problem in any one year. The most common specific problems are anxiety and depression, but there are of course many, many more. Mental health problems can tear a person apart from the inside. They can cause relationships with families and friends to break down, lead to self harm or suicide, or even exacerbate physical ailments such as heart problems. However, in recent years, there has been a great deal of research on whether pets and companion animals can help prevent, or even manage, mental health problems.
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